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Summary of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement 跨太平洋伙伴关系协议摘要

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On October 4, 2015, Ministers of the 12 Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) countries – Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam – announced conclusion of their negotiations. The result is a high-standard, ambitious, comprehensive, and balanced agreement that will promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in our countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labor and environmental protections. We envision conclusion of this agreement, with its new and high standards for trade and investment in the Asia Pacific, as an important step toward our ultimate goal of open trade and regional integration across the region.

KEY FEATURES
Five defining features make the Trans-Pacific Partnership a landmark 21st-century agreement, setting a new standard for global trade while taking up next-generation issues. These features include:
·        Comprehensive market access. The TPP eliminates or reduces tariff and non-tariff barriers across substantially all trade in goods and services and covers the full spectrum of trade, including goods and services trade and investment, so as to create new opportunities and benefits for our businesses, workers, and consumers.
·        Regional approach to commitments. The TPP facilitates the development of production and supply chains, and seamless trade, enhancing efficiency and supporting our goal of creating and supporting jobs, raising living standards, enhancing conservation efforts, and facilitating cross-border integration, as well as opening domestic markets.
·        Addressing new trade challenges. The TPP promotes innovation, productivity, and competitiveness by addressing new issues, including the development of the digital economy, and the role of state-owned enterprises in the global economy.
·        Inclusive trade. The TPP includes new elements that seek to ensure that economies at all levels of development and businesses of all sizes can benefit from trade. It includes commitments to help small- and medium-sized businesses understand the Agreement, take advantage of its opportunities, and bring their unique challenges to the attention of the TPP governments. It also includes specific commitments on development and trade capacity building, to ensure that all Parties are able to meet the commitments in the Agreement and take full advantage of its benefits.
·        Platform for regional integration. The TPP is intended as a platform for regional economic integration and designed to include additional economies across the Asia-Pacific region.

SCOPE
·        The TPP includes 30 chapters covering trade and trade-related issues, beginning with trade in goods and continuing through customs and trade facilitation; sanitary and phytosanitary measures; technical barriers to trade; trade remedies; investment; services; electronic commerce; government procurement; intellectual property; labour; environment; ‘horizontal’ chapters meant to ensure that TPP fulfils its potential for development, competitiveness, and inclusiveness; dispute settlement, exceptions, and institutional provisions.

·        In addition to updating traditional approaches to issues covered by previous free trade agreements (FTAs), the TPP incorporates new and emerging trade issues and cross-cutting issues. These include issues related to the Internet and the digital economy, the participation of state-owned enterprises in international trade and investment, the ability of small businesses to take advantage of trade agreements, and other topics.

·        TPP unites a diverse group of countries – diverse by geography, language and history, size, and levels of development. All TPP countries recognize that diversity is a unique asset, but also one which requires close cooperation, capacity-building for the lesser-developed TPP countries, and in some cases special transitional periods and mechanisms which offer some TPP partners additional time, where warranted, to develop capacity to implement new obligations.

SETTING REGIONAL TRADE RULES

Below is a summary of the TPP’s 30 chapters. Schedules and annexes are attached to the chapters of the Agreement related to goods and services trade, investment, government procurement, and temporary entry of business persons. In addition, the State-Owned Enterprises chapter includes country-specific exceptions in annexes.

1. Initial Provisions and General Definitions
Many TPP Parties have existing agreements with one another. The Initial Provisions and General Definitions Chapter recognizes that the TPP can coexist with other international trade agreements between the Parties, including the WTO Agreement, bilateral, and regional agreements. It also provides definitions of terms used in more than one chapter of the Agreement.

2. Trade in Goods
TPP Parties agree to eliminate and reduce tariffs and non-tariff barriers on industrial goods, and to eliminate or reduce tariffs and other restrictive policies on agricultural goods. The preferential access provided through the TPP will increase trade between the TPP countries in this market of 800 million people and will support high-quality jobs in all 12 Parties. Most tariff elimination in industrial goods will be implemented immediately, although tariffs on some products will be eliminated over longer timeframes as agreed by the TPP Parties. The specific tariff cuts agreed by the TPP Parties are included in schedules covering all goods. The TPP Parties will publish all tariffs and other information related to goods trade to ensure that small- and medium-sized businesses as well as large companies can take advantage of the TPP. They also agree not to use performance requirements, which are conditions such as local production requirements that some countries impose on companies in order for them to obtain tariff benefits. In addition, they agree not to impose WTO-inconsistent import and export restrictions and duties, including on remanufactured goods – which will promote recycling of parts into new products. If TPP Parties maintain import or export license requirements, they will notify each other about the procedures so as to increase transparency and facilitate trade flows.

On agricultural products, the Parties will eliminate or reduce tariffs and other restrictive policies, which will increase agricultural trade in the region, and enhance food security. In addition to eliminating or reducing tariffs, TPP Parties agree to promote policy reforms, including by eliminating agricultural export subsidies, working together in the WTO to develop disciplines on export state trading enterprises, export credits, and limiting the timeframes allowed for restrictions on food exports so as to provide greater food security in the region. The TPP Parties have also agreed to increased transparency and cooperation on certain activities related to agricultural biotechnology.

3. Textiles and Apparel
The TPP Parties agree to eliminate tariffs on textiles and apparel, industries which are important contributors to economic growth in several TPP Parties’ markets. Most tariffs will be eliminated immediately, although tariffs on some sensitive products will be eliminated over longer timeframes as agreed by the TPP Parties. The chapter also includes specific rules of origin that require use of yarns and fabrics from the TPP region, which will promote regional supply chains and investment in this sector, with a “short supply list” mechanism that allows use of certain yarns and fabrics not widely available in the region. In addition, the chapter includes commitments on customs cooperation and enforcement to prevent duty evasion, smuggling and fraud, as well as a textile-specific special safeguard to respond to serious damage or the threat of serious damage to domestic industry in the event of a sudden surge in imports.

4. Rules of Origin
To provide simple rules of origin, promote regional supply chains, and help ensure the TPP countries rather than non-participants are the primary beneficiaries of the Agreement, the 12 Parties have agreed on a single set of rules of origin that define whether a particular good is “originating” and therefore eligible to receive TPP preferential tariff benefits. The product-specific rules of origin are attached to the text of the Agreement. The TPP provides for “accumulation,” so that in general, inputs from one TPP Party are treated the same as materials from any other TPP Party, if used to produce a product in any TPP Party. The TPP Parties also have set rules that ensure businesses can easily operate across the TPP region, by creating a common TPP-wide system of showing and verifying that goods made in the TPP meet the rules of origin. Importers will be able to claim preferential tariff treatment as long as they have the documentation to support their claim. In addition, the chapter provides the competent authorities with the procedures to verify claims appropriately.

5. Customs Administration and Trade Facilitation
Complementing their WTO efforts to facilitate trade, the TPP Parties have agreed on rules to enhance the facilitation of trade, improve transparency in customs procedures, and ensure integrity in customs administration. These rules will help TPP businesses, including small- and medium-sized businesses, by encouraging smooth processing in customs and border procedures, and promote regional supply chains. TPP Parties have agreed to transparent rules, including publishing their customs laws and regulations, as well as providing for release of goods without unnecessary delay and on bond or ‘payment under protest’ where customs has not yet made a decision on the amount of duties or fees owed. They agree to advance rulings on customs valuation and other matters that will help businesses, both large and small, trade with predictability. They also agree to disciplines on customs penalties that will help ensure these penalties are administered in an impartial and transparent manner. Due to the importance of express shipping to business sectors including small- and medium-sized companies, the TPP countries have agreed to provide expedited customs procedures for express shipments. To help counter smuggling and duty evasion, the TPP Parties agree to provide information, when requested, to help each other enforce their respective customs laws.

6. Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures
In developing SPS rules, the TPP Parties have advanced their shared interest in ensuring transparent, non-discriminatory rules based on science, and reaffirmed their right to protect human, animal or plant life or health in their countries. The TPP builds on WTO SPS rules for identifying and managing risks in a manner that is no more trade restrictive than necessary. TPP Parties agree to allow the public to comment on proposed SPS measures to inform their decision-making, and to ensure traders understand the rules they will need to follow. They agree that import programmes are based on the risks associated with importations, and that import checks are carried out without undue delay. The Parties also agree that emergency measures necessary for the protection of human, animal, or plant life or health may be taken provided that the Party taking them notifies all other Parties. The Party adopting an emergency measure will review the scientific basis of that measure within six months and make available the results of these reviews to any Party on request. In addition, TPP Parties commit to improve information exchange related to equivalency or regionalisation requests and to promote systems-based audits to assess the effectiveness of regulatory controls of the exporting Party. In an effort to rapidly resolve SPS matters that emerge between them, they have agreed to establish a mechanism for consultations between governments.

7. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
In developing TBT rules, the TPP Parties have agreed on transparent, non-discriminatory rules for developing technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures, while preserving TPP Parties’ ability to fulfill legitimate objectives. They agree to cooperate to ensure that technical regulations and standards do not create unnecessary barriers to trade. To reduce costs for TPP businesses, especially small businesses, TPP Parties agree to rules that will facilitate the acceptance of the results of conformity assessment procedures from the conformity assessment bodies in the other TPP Parties, making it easier for companies to access TPP markets. Under the TPP, Parties are required to allow for the public to comment on proposed technical regulations, standards, and conformity assessment procedures to inform their regulatory processes and to ensure traders understand the rules they will need to follow. They also will ensure a reasonable interval between publication of technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures, and their entry into force, so that businesses have sufficient time to meet the new requirements. In addition, the TPP includes annexes related to regulation of specific sectors to promote common regulatory approaches across the TPP region. These sectors are cosmetics, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, information and communications technology products, wine and distilled spirits, proprietary formulas for prepackaged foods and food additives, and organic agricultural products.

8. Trade Remedies
The Trade Remedies chapter promotes transparency and due process in trade remedy proceedings through recognition of best practices, but does not affect the TPP Parties’ rights and obligations under the WTO. The chapter provides for a transitional safeguard mechanism, which allows a Party to apply a transitional safeguard measure during a certain period of time if import increases as a result of the tariff cuts implemented under the TPP cause serious injury to a domestic industry. These measures may be maintained for up to two years, with a one-year extension, but must be progressively liberalized if they last longer than a year. Parties imposing safeguard measures must follow notification and consultation requirements. The chapter also sets out rules requiring that a TPP Party applying a transitional safeguard measure provide mutually-agreed compensation. The Parties may not impose more than one of the safeguards allowed under TPP on the same product at the same time. The Parties may not impose a transitional safeguard measure on any product imported under a TPP tariff rate quota, and may exclude TPP products from a WTO safeguard measure if such imports are not a cause or threat of serious injury.

9. Investment
In establishing investment rules, the TPP Parties set out rules requiring non-discriminatory investment policies and protections that assure basic rule of law protections, while protecting the ability of Parties’ governments to achieve legitimate public policy objectives. TPP provides the basic investment protections found in other investment-related agreements, including national treatment; most-favored-nation treatment; “minimum standard of treatment” for investments in accordance with customary international law principles; prohibition of expropriation that is not for public purpose, without due process, or without compensation; prohibition on “performance requirements” such as local content or technology localization requirements; free transfer of funds related to an investment, subject to exceptions in the TPP to ensure that governments retain the flexibility to manage volatile capital flows, including through non-discriminatory temporary safeguard measures (such as capital controls) restricting investment-related transfers in the context of a balance of payments crisis or the threat thereof, and certain other economic crises or to protect the integrity and stability of the financial system; and freedom to appoint senior management positions of any nationality.

TPP Parties adopt a “negative-list” basis, meaning that their markets are fully open to foreign investors, except where they have taken an exception (non-conforming measure) in one of two country-specific annexes: (1) current measures on which a Party accepts an obligation not to make its measures more restrictive in the future and to bind any future liberalization, and (2) measures and policies on which a Party retains full discretion in the future.

The chapter also provides for neutral and transparent international arbitration of investment disputes, with strong safeguards to prevent abusive and frivolous claims and ensure the right of governments to regulate in the public interest, including on health, safety, and environmental protection. The procedural safeguards include: transparent arbitral proceedings, amicus curiae submissions, non-disputing Party submissions; expedited review of frivolous claims and possible award of attorneys’ fees; review procedure for an interim award; binding joint interpretations by TPP Parties; time limits on bringing a claim; and rules to prevent a claimant pursuing the same claim in parallel proceedings.

10. Cross-Border Trade in Services
Given the growing importance of services trade to TPP Parties, the 12 countries share an interest in liberalized trade in this area. TPP includes core obligations found in the WTO and other trade agreements: national treatment; most-favoured nation treatment; market access, which provides that no TPP country may impose quantitative restrictions on the supply of services (e.g., a limit on the number of suppliers or number of transactions) or require a specific type of legal entity or joint venture; and local presence, which means that no country may require a supplier from another country to establish an office or affiliate, or to be resident, in its territory in order to supply a service. TPP Parties accept these obligations on a “negative-list basis,” meaning that their markets are fully open to services suppliers from TPP countries, except where they have taken an exception (non-conforming measure) in one of two country-specific annexes attached to the Agreement : (1) current measures on which a Party accepts an obligation not to make its measures more restrictive in the future, and to bind any future liberalisation, and (2) sectors and policies on which a country retains full discretion in the future.

TPP Parties also agree to administer measures of general application in a reasonable, objective, and impartial manner; and to accept requirements for transparency in the development of new services regulations. Benefits of the chapter can be denied to shell companies and to a service supplier owned by non-Parties with which a TPP Party prohibits certain transactions. TPP Parties agree to permit free transfer of funds related to the cross-border supply of a service. In addition, the chapter includes a professional services annex encouraging cooperative work on licensing recognition and other regulatory issues, and an annex on express delivery services.

11. Financial Services
The TPP Financial Services chapter will provide important cross-border and investment market access opportunities, while ensuring that Parties will retain the ability to regulate financial markets and institutions and to take emergency measures in the event of crisis. The chapter includes core obligations found in other trade agreements, including: national treatment; most-favored nation treatment; market access; and certain provisions under the Investment chapter, including the minimum standard of treatment. It provides for the sale of certain financial services across borders to a TPP Party from a supplier in another TPP Party rather than requiring suppliers to establish operations in the other country in order to sell their service – subject to registration or authorization of cross-border financial services suppliers of another TPP Party in order to help assure appropriate regulation and oversight. A supplier of a TPP Party may provide a new financial service in another TPP market if domestic companies in that market are allowed to do so. TPP Parties have country-specific exceptions to some of these rules in two annexes attached to the TPP: (1) current measures on which a Party accepts an obligation not to make its measures more restrictive in the future and to bind any future liberalization, and (2) measures and policies on which a country retains full discretion in the future.

TPP Parties also set out rules that formally recognize the importance of regulatory procedures to expedite the offering of insurance services by licensed suppliers and procedures to achieve this outcome. In addition, the TPP includes specific commitments on portfolio management, electronic payment card services, and transfer of information for data processing.

The Financial Services chapter provides for the resolution of disputes relating to certain provisions through neutral and transparent investment arbitration. It includes specific provisions on investment disputes related to the minimum standard of treatment, as well as provisions requiring arbitrators to have financial services expertise, and a special State-to-State mechanism to facilitate the application of the prudential exception and other exceptions in the chapter in the context of investment disputes. Finally, it includes exceptions to preserve broad discretion for TPP financial regulators to take measures to promote financial stability and the integrity of their financial system, including a prudential exception and exception of non-discriminatory measures in pursuit of monetary or certain other policies.

12. Temporary Entry for Business Persons
The Temporary Entry for Business Persons chapter encourages authorities of TPP Parties to provide information on applications for temporary entry, to ensure that application fees are reasonable, and to make decisions on applications and inform applicants of decisions as quickly as possible. TPP Parties agree to ensure that information on requirements for temporary entry are readily available to the public, including by publishing information promptly and online if possible, and providing explanatory materials. The Parties agree to ongoing cooperation on temporary entry issues such as visa processing. Almost all TPP Parties have made commitments on access for each other’s business persons, which are in country-specific annexes.

13. Telecommunications
TPP Parties share an interest in ensuring efficient and reliable telecommunications networks in their countries. These networks are critical to companies both large and small for providing services. TPP’s pro-competitive network access rules cover mobile suppliers. TPP Parties commit to ensure that major telecommunications services suppliers in their territory provide interconnection, leased circuit services, co-location, and access to poles and other facilities under reasonable terms and conditions and in a timely manner. They also commit, where a license is required, to ensure transparency in regulatory processes and that regulations do not generally discriminate against specific technologies. And they commit to administer their procedures for the allocation and use of scarce telecommunications resources, including frequencies, numbers and rights-of-way, in an objective, timely, transparent and non-discriminatory manner. TPP Parties recognize the importance of relying on market forces and commercial negotiations in the telecommunications sector. They also agree that they may take steps to promote competition in international mobile roaming services and facilitate the use of alternatives to roaming. TPP Parties agree that, if a Party chooses to regulate rates for wholesale international mobile roaming services, that Party shall permit operators from the TPP countries that do not regulate such rates the opportunity to also benefit from the lower rates.

14. Electronic Commerce
In the Electronic Commerce chapter, TPP Parties commit to ensuring free flow of the global information and data that drive the Internet and the digital economy, subject to legitimate public policy objectives such as personal information protection. The 12 Parties also agree not to require that TPP companies build data centers to store data as a condition for operating in a TPP market, and, in addition, that source code of software is not required to be transferred or accessed. The chapter prohibits the imposition of customs duties on electronic transmissions, and prevents TPP Parties from favoring national producers or suppliers of such products through discriminatory measures or outright blocking. To protect consumers, TPP Parties agree to adopt and maintain consumer protection laws related to fraudulent and deceptive commercial activities online and to ensure that privacy and other consumer protections can be enforced in TPP markets. Parties also are required to have measures to stop unsolicited commercial electronic messages. To facilitate electronic commerce, the chapter includes provisions encouraging TPP Parties to promote paperless trading between businesses and the government, such as electronic customs forms; and providing for electronic authentication and signatures for commercial transactions. A number of obligations in this chapter are subject to relevant non-conforming measures of individual TPP members. The 12 Parties agree to cooperate to help small- and medium-sized business take advantage of electronic commerce, and the chapter encourages cooperation on policies regarding personal information protection, online consumer protection, cybersecurity threats and cybersecurity capacity.

15. Government Procurement
TPP Parties share an interest in accessing each other’s large government procurement markets through transparent, predictable, and non-discriminatory rules. In the Government Procurement chapter, TPP Parties commit to core disciplines of national treatment and non-discrimination. They also agree to publish relevant information in a timely manner, to allow sufficient time for suppliers to obtain the tender documentation and submit a bid, to treat tenders fairly and impartially, and to maintain confidentiality of tenders. In addition, the Parties agree to use fair and objective technical specifications, to award contracts based solely on the evaluation criteria specified in the notices and tender documentation, and to establish due process procedures to question or review complaints about an award. Each Party agrees to a positive list of entities and activities that are covered by the chapter, which are listed in annexes.

16. Competition Policy
TPP Parties share an interest in ensuring a framework of fair competition in the region through rules that require TPP Parties to maintain legal regimes that prohibit anticompetitive business conduct, as well as fraudulent and deceptive commercial activities that harm consumers.
TPP Parties agree to adopt or maintain national competition laws that proscribe anticompetitive business conduct and work to apply these laws to all commercial activities in their territories. To ensure that such laws are effectively implemented, TPP Parties agree to establish or maintain authorities responsible for the enforcement of national competition laws, and adopt or maintain laws or regulations that proscribe fraudulent and deceptive commercial activities that cause harm or potential harm to consumers. Parties also agree to cooperate, as appropriate, on matters of mutual interest related to competition activities. The 12 Parties agree to obligations on due process and procedural fairness, as well as private rights of action for injury caused by a violation of a Party’s national competition law. In addition, TPP Parties agree to cooperate in the area of competition policy and competition law enforcement, including through notification, consultation and exchange of information. The chapter is not subject to the dispute settlement provisions of the TPP, but TPP Parties may consult on concerns related to the chapter.

17. State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and Designated Monopolies
All TPP Parties have SOEs, which often play a role in providing public services and other activities, but TPP Parties recognize the benefit of agreeing on a framework of rules on SOEs. The SOE chapter covers large SOEs that are principally engaged in commercial activities. Parties agree to ensure that their SOEs make commercial purchases and sales on the basis of commercial considerations, except when doing so would be inconsistent with any mandate under which an SOE is operating that would require it to provide public services. They also agree to ensure that their SOEs or designated monopolies do not discriminate against the enterprises, goods, and services of other Parties. Parties agree to provide their courts with jurisdiction over commercial activities of foreign SOEs in their territory, and to ensure that administrative bodies regulating both SOEs and private companies do so in an impartial manner. TPP Parties agree to not cause adverse effects to the interests of other TPP Parties in providing non-commercial assistance to SOEs, or injury to another Party’s domestic industry by providing non-commercial assistance to an SOE that produces and sells goods in that other Party’s territory. TPP Parties agree to share a list of their SOEs with the other TPP Parties and to provide, upon request, additional information about the extent of government ownership or control and the non-commercial assistance they provide to SOEs. There are some exceptions from the obligations in the chapter, for example, where there is a national or global economy emergency, as well as country-specific exceptions that are set out in annexes.

18. Intellectual Property
TPP’s Intellectual Property (IP) chapter covers patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial designs, geographical indications, trade secrets, other forms of intellectual property, and enforcement of intellectual property rights, as well as areas in which Parties agree to cooperate. The IP chapter will make it easier for businesses to search, register, and protect IP rights in new markets, which is particularly important for small businesses.

The chapter establishes standards for patents, based on the WTO’s TRIPS Agreement and international best practices. On trademarks, it provides protections of brand names and other signs that businesses and individuals use to distinguish their products in the marketplace. The chapter also requires certain transparency and due process safeguards with respect to the protection of new geographical indications, including for geographical indications recognized or protected through international agreements. These include confirmation of understandings on the relationship between trademarks and geographical indications, as well as safeguards regarding the use of commonly used terms.
In addition, the chapter contains pharmaceutical-related provisions that facilitate both the development of innovative, life-saving medicines and the availability of generic medicines, taking into account the time that various Parties may need to meet these standards. The chapter includes commitments relating to the protection of undisclosed test and other data submitted to obtain marketing approval of a new pharmaceutical or agricultural chemicals product. It also reaffirms Parties’ commitment to the WTO’s 2001 Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, and in particular confirms that Parties are not prevented from taking measures to protect public health, including in the case of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS.

In copyright, the IP chapter establishes commitments requiring protection for works, performances, and phonograms such as songs, movies, books, and software, and includes effective and balanced provisions on technological protection measures and rights management information. As a complement to these commitments, the chapter includes an obligation for Parties to continuously seek to achieve balance in copyright systems through among other things, exceptions and limitations for legitimate purposes, including in the digital environment. The chapter requires Parties to establish or maintain a framework of copyright safe harbors for Internet Service Providers (ISPs). These obligations do not permit Parties to make such safe harbors contingent on ISPs monitoring their systems for infringing activity.

Finally, TPP Parties agree to provide strong enforcement systems, including, for example, civil procedures, provisional measures, border measures, and criminal procedures and penalties for commercial-scale trademark counterfeiting and copyright or related rights piracy. In particular, TPP Parties will provide the legal means to prevent the misappropriation of trade secrets, and establish criminal procedures and penalties for trade secret theft, including by means of cyber-theft, and for cam-cording.

19. Labour
All TPP Parties are International Labour Organization (ILO) members and recognize the importance of promoting internationally recognized labour rights. TPP Parties agree to adopt and maintain in their laws and practices the fundamental labour rights as recognized in the ILO 1998 Declaration, namely freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining; elimination of forced labour; abolition of child labour and a prohibition on the worst forms of child labour; and elimination of discrimination in employment. They also agree to have laws governing minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health. These commitments also apply to export processing zones. The 12 Parties agree not to waive or derogate from laws implementing fundamental labour rights in order to attract trade or investment, and not to fail to effectively enforce their labour laws in a sustained or recurring pattern that would affect trade or investment between the TPP Parties. In addition to commitments by Parties to eliminate forced labour in their own countries, the Labour chapter includes commitments to discourage importation of goods that are produced by forced labour or child labour, or that contain inputs produced by forced labour, regardless of whether the source country is a TPP Party. Each of the 12 TPP Parties commits to ensure access to fair, equitable and transparent administrative and judicial proceedings and to provide effective remedies for violations of its labour laws. They also agree to public participation in implementation of the Labour chapter, including establishing mechanisms to obtain public input.

The commitments in the chapter are subject to the dispute settlement procedures laid out in the Dispute Settlement chapter. To promote the rapid resolution of labour issues between TPP Parties, the Labour chapter also establishes a labour dialogue that Parties may choose to use to try to resolve any labour issue between them that arises under the chapter. This dialogue allows for expeditious consideration of matters and for Parties to mutually agree to a course of action to address issues. The Labour chapter establishes a mechanism for cooperation on labour issues, including opportunities for stakeholder input in identifying areas of cooperation and participation, as appropriate and jointly agreed, in cooperative activities.

20. Environment
As home to a significant portion of the world’s people, wildlife, plants and marine species, TPP Parties share a strong commitment to protecting and conserving the environment, including by working together to address environmental challenges, such as pollution, illegal wildlife trafficking, illegal logging, illegal fishing, and protection of the marine environment. The 12 Parties agree to effectively enforce their environmental laws; and not to weaken environmental laws in order to encourage trade or investment. They also agree to fulfil their obligations under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and to take measures to combat and cooperate to prevent trade in wild fauna and flora that has been taken illegally. In addition, the Parties agree to promote sustainable forest management, and to protect and conserve wild fauna and flora that they have identified as being at risk in their territories, including through measures to conserve the ecological integrity of specially protected natural areas, such as wetlands. In an effort to protect their shared oceans, TPP Parties agree to sustainable fisheries management, to promote conservation of important marine species, including sharks, to combat illegal fishing, and to prohibit some of the most harmful fisheries subsidies that negatively affect overfished fish stocks, and that support illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing. They also agree to enhance transparency related to such subsidy programs, and to make best efforts to refrain from introducing new subsidies that contribute to overfishing or overcapacity.

TPP Parties also agree to protect the marine environment from ship pollution and to protect the ozone layer from ozone depleting substances. They reaffirm their commitment to implement the multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) they have joined. The Parties commit to provide transparency in environmental decision-making, implementation and enforcement. In addition, the Parties agree to provide opportunities for public input in implementation of the Environment chapter, including through public submissions and public sessions of the Environment Committee established to oversee chapter implementation. The chapter is subject to the dispute settlement procedure laid out in the Dispute Settlement chapter. The Parties further agree to encourage voluntary environmental initiatives, such as corporate social responsibility programs. Finally, the Parties commit to cooperate to address matters of joint or common interest, including in the areas of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and transition to low-emissions and resilient economies.

21. Cooperation and Capacity Building
The economies of the 12 TPP Parties are diverse. All Parties recognise that the TPP lesser-developed Parties may face particular challenges in implementing the Agreement, and in taking full advantage of the opportunities it creates. To address these challenges, the Cooperation and Capacity Building chapter establishes a Committee on Cooperation and Capacity Building to identify and review areas for potential cooperative and capacity building efforts. Parties’ activities are on a mutually agreed basis and subject to the availability of resources. This Committee will facilitate exchange of information to help with requests related to cooperation and capacity building.

22. Competitiveness and Business Facilitation
The Competitiveness and Business Facilitation chapter aims to help the TPP reach its potential to improve the competitiveness of the participating countries, and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. The chapter creates formal mechanisms to review the impact of the TPP on competitiveness of the Parties, through dialogues among governments and between government, business, and civil society, with a particular focus on deepening regional supply chains, to assess progress, take advantage of new opportunities, and address any challenges that may emerge once the TPP is in force. Among these will be the Committee on Competitiveness and Business Facilitation, which will meet regularly to review the TPP’s impact on regional and national competitiveness, and on regional economic integration. The Committee will consider advice and recommendations from stakeholders on ways the TPP can further enhance competitiveness, including enhancing the participation of micro, small- and medium-sized enterprises in regional supply chains. The chapter also establishes a basic framework for Committee to assess supply chain performance under the Agreement, including ways to promote SME participation in supply chains; and review of stakeholder and expert input.

23. Development
The TPP Parties seek to ensure that the TPP will be a high-standard model for trade and economic integration, and in particular to ensure that all TPP Parties can obtain the complete benefits of the TPP, are fully able to implement their commitments, and emerge as more prosperous societies with strong markets. The Development chapter includes three specific areas to be considered for collaborative work once TPP enters into force for each Party: (1) broad-based economic growth, including sustainable development, poverty reduction, and promotion of small businesses; (2) women and economic growth, including helping women build capacity and skill, enhancing women’s access to markets, obtaining technology and financing, establishing women’s leadership networks, and identifying best practices in workplace flexibility; and (3) education, science and technology, research, and innovation. The chapter establishes a TPP Development Committee, which will meet regularly to promote voluntary cooperative work in these areas and new opportunities as they arise.

24. Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
TPP Parties have a shared interest in promoting the participation of small- and medium-sized enterprises in trade and to ensure that small- and medium-sized enterprises share in the benefits of the TPP. Complementing the commitments throughout other chapters of the TPP on market access, paperwork reduction, Internet access, trade facilitation, express delivery and others, the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise chapter includes commitments by each TPP Party to create a user-friendly websites targeted at small- and medium-sized enterprise users to provide easily accessible information on the TPP and ways small firms can take advantage of it, including description of the provisions of TPP relevant to small- and medium-sized enterprises; regulations and procedures concerning intellectual property rights; foreign investment regulations; business registration procedures; employment regulations; and taxation information. In addition, the chapter establishes a Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Committee that will meet regularly to review how well the TPP is serving small- and medium-sized enterprises, consider ways to further enhance its benefits, and oversee cooperation or capacity building activities to support small- and medium-sized enterprises through export counseling, assistance, and training programs for small- and medium-sized enterprises; information sharing; trade finance; and other activities.

25. Regulatory Coherence
TPP’s Regulatory Coherence chapter will help ensure an open, fair, and predictable regulatory environment for businesses operating in the TPP markets by encouraging transparency, impartiality, and coordination across each government to achieve a coherent regulatory approach. The chapter aims to facilitate regulatory coherence in each TPP country by promoting mechanisms for effective interagency consultation and coordination for agencies. It encourages widely-accepted good regulatory practices, such as impact assessments of proposed regulatory measures, communication of the grounds for the selection of chosen regulatory alternatives and the nature of the regulation being introduced. The chapter also includes provisions to help ensure regulations are written clearly and concisely, that the public has access to information on new regulatory measures, if possible online, and that existing regulatory measures are periodically reviewed to determine if they remain the most effective means of achieving the desired objective. In addition, it encourages TPP Parties to provide an annual public notice of all regulatory measures it expects to take. Toward these ends, the chapter establishes a Committee which will give TPP countries, businesses, and civil society continuing opportunities to report on implementation, share experiences on best practices, and consider potential areas for cooperation. The chapter does not in any way affect the rights of TPP Parties to regulate for public health, safety, security, and other public interest reasons.

26. Transparency and Anti-Corruption
The TPP’s Transparency and Anti-Corruption chapter aims to promote the goal, shared by all TPP Parties, of strengthening good governance and addressing the corrosive effects bribery and corruption can have on their economies. Under the Transparency and Anti-Corruption chapter, TPP Parties need to ensure that their laws, regulations, and administrative rulings of general application with respect to any matter covered by the TPP are publicly available and that, to the extent possible, regulations that are likely to affect trade or investment between the Parties are subject to notice and comment. TPP Parties agree to ensure certain due process rights for TPP stakeholders in connection with administrative proceedings, including prompt review through impartial judicial or administrative tribunals or procedures. They also agree to adopt or maintain laws criminalising offering to, or solicitation of, undue advantages by a public official, as well as other acts of corruption affecting international trade or investment. Parties also commit to effectively enforce their anticorruption laws and regulations. In addition, they agree to endeavor to adopt or maintain codes or standards of conduct for their public officials, as well as measures to identify and manage conflicts of interest, to increase training of public officials, to take steps to discourage gifts, to facilitate reporting of acts of corruption, and to provide for disciplinary or other measures for public officials engaging in acts of corruption. In an Annex to this chapter, TPP Parties also agree to provisions that promote transparency and procedural fairness with respect to listing and reimbursement for pharmaceutical products or medical devices. Commitments in this annex are not subject to dispute settlement procedures.

27. Administrative and Institutional Provisions
The Administrative and Institutional Provisions Chapter sets out the institutional framework by which the Parties will assess and guide implementation or operation of the TPP, in particular by establishing the Trans-Pacific Partnership Commission, composed of Ministers or senior level officials, to oversee the implementation or operation of the Agreement and guide its future evolution. This Commission will review the economic relationship and partnership among the Parties on a periodic basis to ensure that the Agreement remains relevant to the trade and investment challenges confronting the Parties. The chapter also requires each Party to designate an overall contact point to facilitate communications between the Parties, and creates a mechanism through which a Party that has a specific transition period for an obligation must report on its plans for, and progress toward, implementing that obligation. This ensures greater transparency with respect to the implementation of Parties’ obligations.

28. Dispute Settlement
The Dispute Settlement chapter is intended to allow Parties to expeditiously address disputes between them over implementation of the TPP. TPP Parties will make every attempt to resolve disputes through cooperation and consultation and encourage the use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms when appropriate. When this is not possible, TPP Parties aim to have these disputes resolved through impartial, unbiased panels. The dispute settlement mechanism created in this chapter applies across the TPP, with few specific exceptions. The public in each TPP Party will be able to follow proceedings, since submissions made in disputes will be made available to the public, hearings will be open to the public unless the disputing Parties otherwise agree, and the final report presented by panels will also be made available to the public. Panels will consider requests from non-governmental entities located in the territory of any disputing Party to provide written views regarding the dispute to panels during dispute settlement proceedings.

Should consultations fail to resolve an issue, Parties may request establishment of a panel, which would be established within 60 days after the date of receipt of a request for consultations or 30 days after the date of receipt of a request related to perishable goods. Panels will be composed of three international trade and subject matter experts independent of the disputing Parties, with procedures available to ensure that a panel can be composed even if a Party fails to appoint a panelist within a set period of time. These panelists will be subject to a code of conduct to ensure the integrity of the dispute settlement mechanism. They will present an initial report to the disputing Parties within 150 days after the last panelist is appointed or 120 days in cases of urgency, such as cases related to perishable goods. The initial report will be confidential, to enable Parties to offer comments. The final report must be presented no later than 30 days after the presentation of the initial report and must be made public within 15 days, subject to the protection of any confidential information in the report.

To maximize compliance, the Dispute Settlement chapter allows for the use of trade retaliation (e.g., suspension of benefits), if a Party found not to have complied with its obligations fails to bring itself into compliance with its obligations. Before use of trade retaliation, a Party found in violation can negotiate or arbitrate a reasonable period of time in which to remedy the breach.

29. Exceptions
The Exceptions Chapter ensures that flexibilities are available to all TPP Parties that guarantee full rights to regulate in the public interest, including for a Party’s essential security interest and other public welfare reasons. This chapter incorporates the general exceptions provided for in Article XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 to the goods trade-related provisions, specifying that nothing in the TPP shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by a Party of measures necessary to, among other things, protect public morals, protect human, animal or plant life or health, protect intellectual property, enforce measures relating to products of prison labour, and measures relating to conservation of exhaustible natural resources.

The chapter also contains the similar general exceptions provided for in Article XIV of the General Agreement on Trade in Services with respect to the services trade-related provisions.
The chapter includes a self-judging exception, applicable to the entire TPP, which makes clear that a Party may take any measure it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests. It also defines the circumstances and conditions under which a Party may impose temporary safeguard measures (such as capital controls) restricting transfers – such as contributions to capital, transfers of profits and dividends, payments of interest or royalties, and payments under a contract – related to covered investments, to ensure that governments retain the flexibility to manage volatile capital flows, in the contexts of balance of payments or other economic crises, or threats thereof. In addition, it specifies that no Party is obligated to furnish information under the TPP if it would be contrary to its law or public interest, or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises. A Party may elect to deny the benefits of Investor-State dispute settlement with respect to a claim challenging a tobacco control measure of the Party.

30. Final Provisions
The Final Provisions chapter defines the way the TPP will enter into force, the way in which it can be amended, the rules that establish the process for other States or separate customs territories to join the TPP in the future, the means by which Parties can withdraw, and the authentic languages of the TPP. It also designates a Depositary for the Agreement responsible for receiving and disseminating documents.
The chapter ensures that the TPP can be amended, with the agreement of all Parties and after each Party completes its applicable legal procedures and notifies the Depositary in writing. It specifies that the TPP is open to accession by members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum and other States or separate customs territories as agreed by the Parties, again after completing applicable legal procedures in each Party. The Final Provisions chapter also specifies the procedures under which a Party can withdraw from the TPP.

  
2015104日,12TPP缔约方(澳大利亚、文莱、加拿大、智利、日本、马来西亚、墨西哥、新西兰、秘鲁、新加坡、美国和越南)的部长们宣布完成谈判。其成果是一项高标准的、进取的、全面而平衡的协议。该协议促进经济成长,支持创造和保留就业岗位,提升创新、生产效率和竞争力,提高生活标准,削减我们这些国家的贫困,并且增进透明度、良好治理,以及改善劳动环境保护标准。我们预期这项适用于亚太地区贸易投资领域的最新和高标准的协议的缔结,将是迈向整个地区开放贸易和区域一体化终极目标的重要步骤。
主要特点
TPP的五个显著特征将使其成为一项21世纪具有里程碑意义的协议,为着手处理下一代问题提供一个新的全球贸易标准。
这些特点包括:
第一,全面市场准入
TPP消除或削减实际上所有货物和服务贸易中的关税和非关税壁垒,涵盖贸易的各个层面,包括货物和服务贸易以及投资,从而为我们的企业、工人和消费者创造新的机会和利益。
第二,区域性的承诺办法
TPP为生产和供应链以及无缝贸易提供便利,以增进效益并帮助我们实现创造就业、提高生活水平以及促进跨界一体化和开放国内市场的目标。
第三,应对新的贸易挑战
TPP通过解决新问题,包括数码经济的发展和全球经济中的国有企业的角色等,促进创新、生产率和竞争力。
第四,包容性贸易
TPP纳入若干新的要素以求保障所有不同发展水平的经济体和不同规模的企业从贸易中获得利益。这包括承诺帮助中小企业了解协议和利用好其带来的机会,以及让TPP各缔约方政府关注这些企业所面临的独特挑战。也包括一些有关发展和贸易能力建设的特殊的承诺,以确保所有各协议缔约方能够履行协议承诺并充分享受其利益。
第五,区域一体化平台
TPP旨在作为区域一体化的一个平台,计划包括横跨亚太地区的其他经济体。
范围
TPP包括30个章节,涵盖贸易和贸易相关的问题,首先是货物贸易以及关税和贸易便利化,接下来是卫生与植物卫生措施,技术性贸易壁垒、贸易救济、投资、服务、电子商务、政府采购、知识产权、劳工和环境等;各“水平状”章节意在确保TPP在发展、竞争和包容性、争端解决、例外和制度规定等方面发挥其潜力。
除了更新在过往自贸协议所涵盖议题上的传统做法,TPP还纳入了一些新的正在出现的贸易问题和交叉问题。这些问题涉及到互联网和数码经济、国有企业参与国际贸易和投资、小微企业利用贸易协议的能力,以及其他。
TPP由不同国家创建而成。它们在地理、语言、历史、幅员和发展水平上存在差异。所有TPP国家承认,多元化是一种独特资产,但同时也需要紧密合作,顾及到TPP成员中次发达国家的能力建设,并且在某些情形下基于要求为若干TPP伙伴做出过渡期安排以发展其履行新的义务的能力。
【各章节精要】
第一章 初始条款和一般定义(Initial Provisions and General Definitions
许多TPP缔约方之间都已经签订过其它贸易协定。初始条款和一般定义这章承认缔约国之间相互签订的其他国际贸易协定与TPP并存,包括WTO协定、双边和区域间协定。本章解释了TPP文本中所涉及的术语和定义。
 
第二章 货物贸易(Trade in Goods
TPP缔约方同意消除和削减工业产品的关税和非关税壁垒,以及农产品的关税和其他限制政策。TPP提供的优先准入将增加这个由12个缔约方8亿人口组成的市场的贸易量以及提供高质量的就业岗位。
大部分的工业产品关税在协定生效后即刻取消,另一部分商品关税将在缔约方同意的更长时间范围削减。由缔约方同意的特别关税减让体现在涵盖所有商品的“关税减让时间表”内。
TPP缔约方将公布所有有关商品贸易的关税及其它相关信息,保证中小企业及大型企业均可以受惠。它们还同意不使用业绩要求这样一些由某些国家施加给企业的附加条件,诸如当地生产要求等,以获得关税优惠。
此外,它们还同意不施行与WTO协定不一致的进出口限制和关税,包括再制造商品关税政策,促进零部件在新产品中循环使用。如果TPP协定缔约方维持进出口许可证要求,它们将相互通知相关程序以增加透明度,促进贸易流动。
在农产品方面,缔约方将消除或削减关税和其它限制性措施,该举措将增加地区间的农产品贸易和食品安全。除了消除和削减关税,TPP缔约方同意推动政策改革,包括取消农产品出口补贴,与WTO合作推进出口国有贸易企业、出口信贷的准则,以及为经许可的食品出口限制设定时间上限,以增强区域间食品安全。
TPP缔约方还同意,增强各种农业生物技术相关活动的透明度和合作。
 
第三章 纺织品和服装(Textiles and Apparel
TPP缔约方同意取消纺织品和服装的关税,这一行业对部分TPP缔约方市场经济增长举足轻重。大部分关税将立即取消,另一部分敏感商品的关税将由缔约方同意在更长时间框架内削减。
本章还涉及特定的原产地规则,要求使用的丝线和面料来源于TPP缔约方地区,以推动区域间供应链和投资,同时,“供应短缺清单”机制允许使用某些本区域内未广泛使用的丝线和面料。
本章还包括海关合作执行的承诺,以防止逃避关税,走私和欺诈。
此外也提及有关纺织品的特殊保障措施,以应对进口的突然增加对国内产业造成的严重损害或严重损害威胁的情况。
 
第四章 原产地规则(Rules of Origin
为了实施原产地规则,促进地区供应链,并有助于确保TPP缔约方而不是非参与者为主要受益者,12个缔约成员达成一套原产地规则。规则明确了特定产品是否“原产”,是否有资格获得TPP特惠关税待遇。特定产品原产地规则是附加的文本协议。TPP协议采用“累积”机制,即在一般情况下,一TPP缔约方在生产任何缔约方产品中的原料投入,将被视作任何其他TPP缔约方的材料对待。
TPP还制订了为确保商业活动在TPP区域快捷开展的规则,通过创建一个通用TPP-wide系统,显示和验证在TPP区域生产的产品符合原产地规则。进口商只要能够提供相关的文件便可以享受优惠关税待遇,此外,本章规定了有关部门进行适当验证的程序。
 
第五章 海关管理和贸易便利化(Customs Administration and Trade Facilitation
作为WTO促进贸易努力的补充,TPP缔约方就提高贸易便利化,提高海关程序的透明度,并确保海关管理的完整性达成一致。这些规则将通过简化海关和入境程序以及促进区域供应链,帮助TPP企业,包括中小企业的发展。TPP缔约方已达成透明的规则,包括公布相关海关法律法规,避免货物在通关时不必要的延迟和扣押以及由于海关尚未确定税费金额而造成的“抗议支付”。它们同意完善海关估价和其他事项,以此保障企业运行的可预测性。鉴于快递运输对于企业发展的重要性,TPP缔约方还就开辟快递运输加急通道达成共识。为打击走私和逃税,TPP缔约方同意在需要时为彼此提供信息帮助一实施各自海关法律。
 
第六章 卫生和植物检疫(SPS)措施(Sanitary and Phytosanitary <SPS> Measures
SPS规则制定中,TPP缔约方就如何确保透明、非歧视规则立足于科学达成共识,并重申它们对保护人类、动物以及植物的生命和健康的权利。TPPSPS规则建立在WTO的相关规则基础之上,以识别和管理风险,其目的是不再对贸易施加不必要的限制。TPP缔约方同意公众对SPS措施发表评论以提醒政策制定者,并确保贸易商理解他们需要遵守的规则。它们同意进口措施是以进口相关风险为基础,进口检查不宜不当拖延。各缔约方还同意,为保护人类、动物或植物的生命和健康,若干紧急措施在必要时可以实施,但必须事先通知其他各缔约方。采取紧急措施的缔约方应该在六个月内将审核的科学依据公布给任何有需要的其他缔约方。此外,TPP缔约方承诺改善与等价或区域化要求相关的信息交换,促进基于制度的有关评估出口方监管控制有效性的审计。为了迅速解决缔约方之间出现的SPS问题,它们同意建立一种政府间协商机制。
 
第七章 技术性贸易壁垒(Technical Barriers to Trade <TBT>
在制定TBT规则中,TPP各缔约方同意基于透明、非歧视规则,发展技术规范、标准及合格评定程序,同时保留TPP缔约成员实现合法目标的能力。它们同意相互合作,确保技术规范和标准不会造成不必要的贸易壁垒。为降低TPP企业,特别是小企业成本,TPP缔约方同意尽快接受来自于其他缔约方合格评定机构的评定结果,使企业更容易进入TPP市场。在TPP规则下,必须允许公众对技术规范、标准和合格评定程序进行评论,并确保贸易商明白他们要遵守的规则。它们还将确保技术法规和合格评定程序的出台与实施之间有一个合理的时间间隔,以便于企业有足够的时间来满足新的要求。此外,TPP相关附件还包含了特定行业监管的通用措施。这些行业包括化妆品、医疗设备、医药、信息和通信技术产品、葡萄酒和蒸馏酒、预包装食品和食品添加剂的专利配方以及有机农产品。
 
第八章 贸易救济(Trade Remedies
本章意在促进通过了解最佳惯例理以提升贸易救济程序的透明度和正当程序,但不损各缔约方在WTO项下的权利和义务。本章规定过渡性保护机制,即允许一缔约方在过渡期内使用过渡性保护措施,如果因为其实施TPP进行关税削减而导致对其国内产业的严重损害。这些措施最长不得超过2年,但得以展期1年,在措施超过1年,必须逐步自由化。实施保护措施的缔约方必须满足通知和协商要求。本章制定若干规则,要求实施保护措施的缔约方提供相互可接受的补偿。缔约方不得在同一时期针对同一产品实施TPP项下的超过一种以上的过渡性保护措施。缔约方不得对根据TPP配额所进口的任何产品实施过渡性保护措施,但可以将TPP项下产品从WTO保护措施中排除,如果该等进口并没有导致损害或损害威胁。
 
第九章 投资(Investment
为确立投资规则,缔约方要求非歧视性投资政策与保护确保基本法治准则,但同时保障缔约方政府实现合法公共政策目标的能力。
TPP规定了在其他与投资相关协议中出现的对投资的基本保护,包括国民待遇、最惠国待遇、符合习惯国际法原则的最低标准待遇、禁止不符合公共利益缺乏正当程序和无补偿的征收、禁止诸如当地成分或技术本土化要求之类的业绩要求,自由任命不受国籍限制的高层管理人员,以及投资资金的自由转移。关于投资资金自由转移,相关规定得服从TPP例外规则,以确保各国政府在遭遇收支不平衡危机或威胁以及其他经济危机情形下拥有适当权限管理不稳定的资本流动,以维护金融系统的统一性和稳定性,其中包括实施非歧视性的临时保护措施(例如资本管制),以及限制高级管理人员的国籍。
TPP缔约方引入负面清单机制,即它们的市场向外国投资者全面开放,除非它们在两个附件中的一个中采取了例外行动(非相容性措施):(1)缔约方接受某一义务所采取的在将来不会变得更加严厉和限制自由化的现时措施,;以及(2)缔约方在将来享有绝对自由裁量权的措施和政策。
本章也规定了中立、透明的国际投资争端解决(安排),以确保预防滥用求偿程序,保障政府在公共利益方面的监管权力,这些公共利益包括健康、安全和环境保护。程序方面的保障包括:透明的裁决程序、法庭之友的意见、非争议方提交的意见、对不当求偿的快速审理以及适当的律师费补偿、对临时裁决的复核、限制缔约方联合解释、提出求偿的时间限制,以及预防申诉方在平行诉讼程序中提出相同诉求的规则。
 
第十章 跨境服务贸易(Cross-Border Trade in Services
考虑到服务贸易对TPP缔约方不断增加的重要性,12个缔约方就该领域自由化达成共识。TPP包含了在WTO及其他贸易协定中的诸项核心义务:国民待遇、最惠国待遇、市场准入(规定TPP缔约方不能对服务提供实施数量限制或要求特定法律主体或合资企业)和当地存在(缔约方不得要求来自于其他缔约方的服务供应商在其境内为提供服务而设立办公室、分支机构或为当地者)。
缔约方接受负面清单义务,即他们的市场对TPP服务供应商完全开放,除非它们在两个附件中的一个中采取了例外行动(非相容性措施):(1)缔约方接受某一义务所采取的在将来不会变得更加严厉和限制自由化的现时措施,;以及(2)缔约方在将来享有绝对自由裁量权的措施和政策。
缔约方还同意以合理、客观和公正的方式管理其一般性适用程序,并接受新提出的服务规则符合透明度要求。本章中的各项利益不得给予空壳公司和某一TPP缔约方禁止与其交易的非TPP缔约方服务供应商。缔约方同意允许跨境服务贸易有关的资金自由转移。此外,本章包括一个旨在鼓励在资格认定和其他规范性问题方面合作的专业服务附件以及快递服务附件。
 
第十一章 金融服务(Financial Services
本章致力于提供重要的跨境和投资市场准入机会,同时将确保缔约方维持监管金融市场和金融机构的能力,以及在危机中采取紧急措施的能力。本章包含了出现在其他贸易协定中的诸项核心义务,即国民待遇、最惠国待遇、市场准入和本协定“投资”章节下的某些条款,包括最低待遇标准。本章规定,来自其他缔约方的供应商在直接向某一缔约方提供跨境金融服务的销售时,该缔约方不得要求供应商在该缔约方建立分支机构,供应商须在对方国家进行跨境金融服务供应商注册或取得授权,以便该缔约方保障必要监管和管理。
如缔约方允许其国内公司在其境内市场开办金融新业务,其他缔约方供应商也可在该缔约方的境内市场开办同类业务。缔约方可享受一些在TPP两个附件中所列出的国别例外,即:(1)缔约方接受某一义务所采取的在将来不会变得更加严厉和限制自由化的现时措施,;以及(2)缔约方在将来享有绝对自由裁量权的措施和政策。
缔约方也制定规则正式承认那些旨在促进由持牌服务供应商提供保险服务的监管程序以及实现结果的程序的重要性。此外,TPP还包括一些特殊承诺,涉及资产组合管理、电子支付卡服务以及与数据处理中的信息传输。
为解决就特定条款产生的争议,本章规定了中立和透明的投资仲裁机制。它包括有关最低待遇标准方面的某些投资争端规定和要求仲裁员具有金融服务专门知识的规定,也包括一项特别的国与国之间争端解决安排,以方便使用投资争端章节中的审慎例外及其他例外规定。最后,它还包括一些例外,保留了缔约方金融监管部门广泛的自由裁量权,以便于采取措施促进金融稳定和金融系统的统一,其中有审慎例外和在实施货币或其他政策时的非歧视性措施的例外。
 
第十二章 商务人士临时入境(Temporary Entry for Business Persons
本章鼓励TPP缔约方的主管部门提供有关临时入境申请的信息,并保证申请费用是合理的,并对申请快速做出决定并尽快通知申请人。缔约方同意保证有关临时入境要求的信息已经向公众公开,包括及时通过网络发布信息,并尽可能提供释明性材料。缔约方同意继续在临时入境方面合作,例如签证程序。几乎所有缔约方都做出承诺,彼此给予对方商业人士入境便利,详情见国别附件。
 
第十三章 电信(Telecommunications
缔约方在确保其境内有效和可信赖的电讯网络方面达成共识。电讯网络对于提供服务的企业至关重要,而无论其规模大小。TPP有关支持竞争的网络准入规则涉及移动通讯供应商。缔约方承诺保障其境内主要的电信服务供应商以合理的条件和及时的方式,提供网络互联、线路租赁、共同定位、电缆接口以及其他设备服务。缔约方还承诺,在发放牌照的情况下,确保其程序透明以及管理规则不会对特定电信技术构成一般性歧视,并且以客观、及时、透明和非歧视的方式管理其稀缺电信资源的分配和使用程序,包括频率、数字和波段。缔约方承认依靠市场力量和商业谈判在电信领域的重要性。它们同意采取措施以促进国际漫游服务的竞争性以及提升漫游的替代服务。还同意在一缔约方选择对国际漫游服务的批发费率做出规定的情况下,允许来自于其他未实施如此费率的缔约方运营商有机会从中获益。
 
第十四章 电子商务(Electronic Commerce
在本章,TPP缔约方承诺,在达成合法公众政策目标(诸如个人信息保护政策)的范围内,保证那些驱动互联网和数码经济发展的全球信息和数据的自由流动。12个缔约方同意不强求TPP缔约方的企业建立数据中心作为在TPP市场内运营的条件,另外,也不强求其移交或提供软件的来源码。本章禁止对电子传输附加关税,防止TPP缔约方以对外歧视性措施或直接禁止的方式对本国此类产品的生产商或供应商提供有利条件。为保护消费者,TPP缔约方同意制定并维持有关在线欺诈或虚构商业行为的消费者保护法,确保隐私和其他消费者保护措施可以在TPP市场中得以贯彻实施。缔约方也被要求采取行动制止商业电子信息的单方面推送。为促进电子商务的发展,本章也制定了一些鼓励TTP缔约方推动企业与政府间无纸化交易的条款,比如电子海关表格,并商业贸易的电子认证和签名做出规定。本章中大量的义务受制于单个TPP缔约方有关非相容的措施。12个缔约方同意相互合作以帮助中小企业充分利用电子商务带来的红利,鼓励在个人信息保护、在线消费者保护、网络安全威胁和网络安全能力的政策方面开展合作。
 
第十五章 政府采购(Government Procurement
通过公平、可预期以及非歧视的规则,TPP缔约方共享彼此庞大的政府采购市场所带来的红利。在政府采购章节,TPP缔约方就国民待遇和非歧视的核心原则做出了承诺。他们也同意及时公布相关信息,保证供应商有充足时间获取投标文件及应标,公平、不偏不倚的对待投标方,并为投标方的信息保密。另外,缔约方同意使用公平的、客观的技术规格,授标完全以通知和标书文件中列明评价标准为条件,并对中标提出的抗议建立适当的质询或审查程序。各缔约方均同意,本章涉及的机构和采购活动以正面清单的方式列明在附录中。
 
第十六章 竞争政策(Competition Policy
TPP缔约方在依靠若干规则以确保区域内有一个公平竞争的框架上达成共识。这些规则要求TPP缔约方维护法律秩序,以禁止阻碍竞争的商业行为,以及损害消费者的欺诈和欺骗性商业活动。
TPP缔约方同意制定或维持全国性有关阻碍竞争的商业行为的竞争法律,并将这些法律适用于它们领土内的所有商业行为。为保证此等法律能有效实施,TPP缔约方同意建立或维持对国家竞争法律实施负责的监管机构,并制定或维持涉及损害、可能损害消费者的商业欺诈和欺骗性行为的法律法规。缔约方也同意就相互受益的有关竞争活动适当开展国际合作。12个缔约方就正当程序和程序公正的义务,以及针对违反某一缔约方国家竞争法所造成的损害进行诉讼的私有权利达成了一致意见。另外,TPP缔约方同意在竞争政策和竞争法的实施领域开展合作,包括通知、咨询和信息交换。本章不受TPP争端解决条款限制,但是,TPP缔约方可以就本章有关的议题进行咨询。
 
第十七章 国有企业及特定垄断领域(State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and Designated Monopolies
所有TPP缔约方均有国有企业,这些国有通常作用于提供公共服务和其他活动。但是TPP缔约方认同就国有企业达成框架性规则所带来的益处。本章涉及从事商业活动的主要大型国有企业。缔约方同意确保其国有企业基于商业考量进行商业买卖,只有在这样做与有关授权国有企业运营并提供公共服务的任何强制性规定不符的情况下存在例外。它们也同意确保其国有企业或特定垄断领域非歧视的对待其他缔约方企业、货物和服务。缔约方同意在其领土范围内对外国国有企业的商业行为提供司法管辖,保证规范性行政机构公正对待国有企业和私人企业。TPP缔约方同意避免通过对国有企业提供的非商业支持造成对其他TPP缔约方利益的不利影响,或者避免由于对在其他缔约方领土范围内生产和销售货物的国有企业提供非商业支持而损害该缔约方的国内产业。TPP缔约方同意在TPP缔约方内部共享他们国有企业的清单,并基于请求提供政府的股权或控制的程度信息以及他们提供给国有企业的非商业支持。本章也规定了一些义务例外的情形,比如面临全国或全球性经济紧急情势,以及在附录中列举的一些国别例外规定。
 
第十八章 知识产权(Intellectual Property
本章涉及专利、商标、版权、工业设计、地理标识、商业秘密以及知识产权的其他形式,知识产权权利的行使以及缔约方愿意合作的相关领域。本章有助于企业在新市场中搜寻、登记以及保护知识产权权利,这对于小企业来说尤为重要。
本章根据WTOTRIPS协议以及国际的最佳通行惯例制定了专利标准。关于商标,它对品牌名称,以及企业或个人在市场中用以区分他们产品的其他标识提供了保护。在新的地理标识保护方面,本章也要求了一定的透明度和正当程序保障,包括地理标识的认定或通过国际协定的形式加以保护。这些包含了对商标和地理标识之间关系理解的确认,并保障了常用术语的使用。
另外,基于对各缔约方达到这些标准可能需要的时间的考量,本章包含了制药相关的规定,一方面,促进创新的、拯救生命的药物的发展;另一方面,保障大众可以获得普通的药物。本章包含关于未披露测试的保护,以及对新药或者农业化学产品为获得市场准入而提交的其他信息的保护。本章也再次重申缔约方在TRIPS协议和公众健康方面于2001年对WTO做出的宣言,同时,也特别确认了在诸如HIVAIDS流行病的情形下,不禁止缔约方为保护公众健康而采取措施的权利。
关于版权,本章在保护作品、表演和录音制品方面做出了承诺,如歌曲、电影、书籍和软件,并在技术保护措施和权利管理信息方面包含了有效的、平衡性的规定。作为对这些承诺的补充,本章还包含了要求缔约方通过基于合法目的在其他方面、例外情形以及限制,如数码环境下,持续的寻求版权制度的平衡。本章要求缔约方为互联网服务供应商建立或者维持一个版权安全港湾的框架。这些义务不允许缔约方在互联网服务供应商对侵权行为的监管系统中提供此种安全港湾。
最后,TPP缔约方同意提供强有力的实施体制,包括,诸如民事诉讼、临时措施、边境措施以及大规模的商标混淆或者涉及版权和隐私权利的刑事诉讼和罚金。值得一提的是,TPP缔约方将提供法律手段防止商业秘密的滥用,并对包括网络盗窃手段在内的商业秘密盗窃设立刑事诉讼和罚金。
 
第十九章 劳工(Labour
TPP所有缔约方亦为国际劳工组织的缔约方。它们承认促进被国际广泛承认的劳工权利之保障的重要性。TPP缔约方同意以各方国内的法律和实践采纳并维持国际劳工组织于1998年声明中承认的基本劳工权利,即结社自由及集体协商的权利,消灭强迫劳动现象,消灭童工现象,禁止童工这种最恶劣的形式以及消灭雇佣中的歧视现象。
各方亦达成一致,在最低工资、工作时间以及职业安全及健康方面进行立法规范。这些承诺也适用于出口加工区。12个缔约方一致同意不得为吸引贸易及投资而从法律上放弃或减损保障基本劳工权利的实施义务,亦不得以持续或不断重复的方式放弃实施影响TPP各缔约方之间贸易和投资的有关劳工保护的法律。除了各缔约方承诺在各自国家内消灭强迫劳动之外,TPP劳工这一章各缔约方还承诺阻止由强迫劳工或童工生产的或者含有强迫劳工生产的原材料的商品进口,而无论商品来源国是否TPP缔约方。12TPP缔约方承诺在出现违反各自劳工保障法的情况下,保证提供公平、平等以及透明的行政和司法程序和有效的救济方式。各缔约方也一致同意在实施劳工保障这一章时,保证公众的参与,包括建立获得公众意见的机制。
各缔约方在本章的承诺受争端解决这一章规定的争端解决程序的约束。为促进TPP各缔约方的劳工事项的快速解决,本章同时建立了可供各缔约方选择的劳工对话机制,以解决他们之间在本章范围内发生的任何劳工争议。这一对话机制可供快速考虑问题,并为成员双方解决问题达成行动方案。“劳工”这一章关于劳工事项建立了一个合作机制,包括在确定合作及参与范围方面给予利益方参与权,并在合适及一致同意的情况下采取合作行动。
 
第二十章 环境(Environment
作为占世界重要部分人口、野生生物、植物和海洋物种的家园,TPP共同承担保护和维护环境的义务,包括一起合作以强调环境挑战,例如污染、非法捕猎野生动物、非法捕鱼以及保护海洋环境。12个缔约方承诺将有效致力于执行它们的环境法律,不得为了鼓励贸易和投资而弱化环境法律。
缔约方还承诺完全履行其在濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约项下的义务,并采取措施打击和采取合作措施以阻止非法获得的野生动植物贸易。此外,缔约方还同意促进可持续的森林管理措施以保护和保存在其领土内被认为濒危的野生动植物,包括通过采取措施以保护自然区域的生态完整性,例如湿地。在保护公共海域方面,TPP缔约方同意采取可持续的渔业管理措施,以促进对重要海洋生物的保护,例如鲨鱼,打击非法捕鱼,禁止对鱼类存量产生负面影响的有害渔业的补贴,禁止支持非法、隐蔽和不规则的捕鱼。缔约方承诺提高在补贴政策方面的透明度,采取有力措施限制引入对过度捕捞和过量捕捞的新补贴。
TPP缔约方一致同意提高此类补贴项目的透明度,并且尽力避免引入新的补贴以致过度捕捞及产能过剩。TPP各方亦一致同意保护海洋环境免受航船污染,保护臭氧层免受物质消耗。各缔约方重申实施多边环境协定中的承诺。各缔约方承诺提高在环境决策、实施及执行方面的透明度。
此外,各方同意提供工作机会以参与本章在各方的实施,包括在为保证本章实施而建立的环境委员会中采取公众参与的机制。
本章受争端解决这一章规定的争端程序的约束。各缔约方进一步同意鼓励自愿的环保倡议,如企业的社会责任项目等。最后,各方承诺协作解决有关联合或共同利益的事项,包括在生物多样性的保护及可持续利用以及向低排放和循环经济过度等方面。
 
第二十一章 合作与能力建设(Cooperation and Capacity Building
12TPP缔约方经济各异。缔约方都意识到欠发达缔约方在实施本协定以及全面利用TPP创造的机会方面将面临特别的挑战。为明确该等挑战,本章设立合作与能力建设委员会以确定和检讨需要潜在合作和能力建设努力的领域。缔约方的行动将基于相互认可的基础并受其资源限制。该委员会将促进信息交流以应对有关合作和能力建设的要求。
 
第二十二章 竞争力和商业促进(Competitiveness and Business Facilitation
本章意在帮助TPP实现其缔约方竞争力的潜力,以及亚太地区作为一个整体的竞争力。本章设立通过政府之间以及政府与企业、社会之间的对话以检讨TPP对缔约方竞争力影响的正式机制,重点关注日益深化的地区供应链,以评估进展、利用新的机会和提请注意TPP生效后可能出现的挑战。其中就包括竞争与商业促进委员会,该委员会将定期召开会议以检讨TPP对地区和国家竞争力以及区域经济一体化的影响。委员会将考虑利害关系方的建议和意见以便TPP更好促进竞争力,包括提升小微、中小企业在区域供应链中的参与度。本章还为委员会评估协定项下供应链表现设立一个基本架构,包括促进中小企业参与供应链的方式以及检讨利害关系方和专家的投入。
 
第二十三章 发展(Development
缔约方致力于确保TPP将成为经济贸易一体化的高标准模板,特别是确保所有缔约方都能从TPP获益,有能力实现其全部承诺,通过强大的市场催生富有的社会。本章涵盖三个在TPP生效后缔约方应当合作努力的领域:(1)广泛的经济增长,包括可持续发展,减少贫穷,促进小企业发展;(2)女性经济发展,保障帮助女性发展能力和技术,增强女性进入职场的能力,获得技术和金融,建立女性领导网络,确立女性工作场所灵活性的最佳实践;(3)教育、科学、技术、研究和创新。本章设立TPP发展委员会,该委员会定期会面以促进在这些领域的自愿合作工作和他们提出的新机会。
 
第二十四章 中小企业(Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
缔约方在促进中小企业参与贸易方面有着一致意见,并保障中小企业分享TPP带来的利益。通过TPP其他章节实现有关市场准入、纸面文件的减少、网联网准入、贸易便利、快递以及其他措施的承诺,本章包括各缔约方做出的承诺,即为中小企业创造便捷使用的网站和能够运用的方法,以方便其获取TPP信息。这些网站的信息应当包括TPP有关中小企业条款的描述,有关知识产权的规定和程序、外商投资管理、商事登记程序、雇佣管理和税务信息。除此之外,本章设立中小企业委员会,委员将定期开会以检讨TPP是否有效服务中小企业,探索提升中小企业利益的方式,检视合作或合作能力建设活动,即通过出口咨询、协助、培训计划、贸易融资以及其他方式为中小企业提供支持。
 
第二十五章 监管一致性(Regulatory Coherence
本章通过鼓励提高透明度、公正性以及缔约方政府之间的协作,以确保在TPP缔约方市场中运作的商业享有开放、公开、可预见的监管环境,以实现监管政策的一致性。本章意在通过增强有效的跨部门协商和合作机制以促进TPP缔约方监管的一致性。它鼓励各方采用广泛接受的合理的监管措施,如拟实施监管措施的影响评价,以及有关替代性监管措施选择基础和正在实施监管措施性质的沟通。本章还包括保障监管的条款表述的清晰性和连贯性,公众得以知晓有关新监管措施的信息。如果在线可能的话,应当定期评估即时监管是否是实现既定目标的最有效措施。此外,它还鼓励缔约方提供其年度计划实施的监管措施。基于这些目的,本章设立一个委员会,该委员会将为缔约方、企业、社会提供持续的机会以报告协定实施情况,分享最佳商业惯例以及探讨潜在合作的领域。本章在任何情况下都不会影响缔约方出于公共健康、安宁、安全和其他公共利益考虑而实施监管的权利。
 
第二十六章 透明度与反腐败(Transparency and Anti-Corruption—)
本章意在促进缔约方共同认可的目标,即促进良好治理和强调贪腐对缔约方经济的侵蚀作用。在本章,TPP缔约方须保证其涉及到TPP有关事项的法律和可适用的行政法规对公众开放,并在可能的情况下保证那些会影响缔约方贸易和投资的规定让人知晓和反馈意见。
在行政程序方面,TPP缔约方承诺保障给予TPP利益相关者以正当程序权利,包括通过公正的司法或行政裁法庭或程序及时复核的权利。缔约方同时也同意制定或维持有关法律以追究意图通过公职人员获得不正当利益的行为,以及其他影响国际贸易和投资的腐败行为。除此之外,它们同意尽力制定或维持公职人员行为准则或标准,采取措施识别和管理利益冲突,加强对公职人员的培训,限制送礼,提升报告腐败行为的便利,对涉及腐败的公职人员提出训诫或采取其他措施。TPP缔约方也同意在有关农产品和医疗器械的清单和赔偿方面提高透明度和程序公平。在附件中的承诺不适用于争议解决程序。
 
第二十七章 行政及组织条款(Administrative and Institutional Provisions
本章列示组织架构,通过组织构架缔约方得以评估和引导TPP的实施和运行,特别是设立由部长和高级官员组成的跨太平洋伙伴关系委员会以监控本协议的实施和运行以及指导其将来的发展。委员会将定期检讨缔约方的经济关系和伙伴关系以保障本协定与缔约方面临的经济、投资方面的挑战有关。本章还要求缔约方指定联系点以为缔约方之间的交流提供便利,并提供一种履行义务过渡期的缔约方定期报告其有关履行义务的计划、进展的机制。这将提升成员履行义务的透明度。
 
第二十八章 争端解决(Dispute Settlement
本章的目的在于保障缔约方之间因为实施TPP产生争议时得以快速提出争议。所有缔约方应当致力于通过合作和协商解决争议,并鼓励缔约方在合适的情况下采用替代性争议解决方式。如果该等措施均不可行,缔约方将通过公证、无偏见的专家小组解决争议。除了少数例外,争议解决机制适用几乎全部TPP。缔约方的公众得以跟进程序,争议程序中提交的文件将予以公开,听证将向公众开放,除非争议的缔约方另有约定。专家小组做出的最终报告将向公众公开。专家小组将考虑争议方境内的非政府组织的要求,以便在争议解决程序中向专家提供有关争议的书面意见。
如果磋商未能解决争议,争议方可以要求成立专家组,该专家组在收到磋商请求后60天内或涉及易腐烂货物的请求30天内。专家组由三名独立于争议方的国际贸易和争议事项有关的专家组成。程序上还应当保障在一方没有及时指定专家的情况下专家组依然得以成立。专家应当遵循行为守则以保障争议解决机制的正当性。专家小组应当在专家指定后150天内做出初步报告,如果情况紧急(如涉及易腐烂货物)应当在120天做出初步报告。最终报告应当在初步报告出具后30天内做出,并在15日内向公众公开,但应当保护报告中的秘密信息。
为了最大限度保障各方遵守TPP,如果缔约方被认为未能履行义务的话,争议解决机制允许使用贸易报复(如利益暂停)。在实施贸易报复前,被视为违反条约的一方可以协商或要求一个合理期限以弥补其违约行为。
 
第二十九章 例外(Exceptions
本章规定所有TPP缔约方享有一定灵活性以保障缔约方在公共利益方面有足够的监管权限,包括缔约方核心安全利益和其他公共福利的考虑。本章还包含了GATT199420条有关货物贸易的一般例外条款,规定TPP中的任何条款不得理解为阻止缔约方适用或实施必要措施以保护公共道德,保障人权、动植物生命和健康、保护知识产权,实施与囚犯劳力有关产品的措施以及有关保护濒危自然物种的措施。
本章还包含《服务贸易总协定》第14条有关于贸易有关的服务条款。
本章包括一项可适用于整个TPP的自我评断的例外,使缔约方明确可采取任何其认为适当的措施以保护其核心安全利益。本章也界定了缔约方得以采取临时保护措施(如资本管制)的条件和环境,以限制转移,例如增加资本、利润和红利的转移、本金和利息的支付、与覆盖投资有关的合同项下支付,以保障政府在国际收支不平衡和其他经济危机和威胁时享有对异常资本流动的灵活权限。此外,本章规定TPP缔约方不得被迫提供违法其法律或公共利益,或损害特定企业合法商业利益的信息。如果申诉的争端涉及挑战该缔约方控烟措施,缔约方可拒绝投资者-国家争端解决机制项下利益。
 
第三十章 最后条款(Final Provisions
最后条款一章定义TPP生效的方式、修改的方式、其他国家或单独关税区加入TPP的规则、缔约方退出的方式以及TPP官方语言。本章还规定了协定的托管方式以便接受和分发文件。
本章确保TPP可以在各方同意以及各缔约方完成其可适用的法律程序并书面通知托管中心的情况下予以修订。它还规定TPP对亚太经合组织缔约方及缔约方同意的其他国家和单独关税区开放,但必须完成各方内部可适用的法律程序。本章还规定了缔约方退出TPP的程序。
 
 
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